Category Archives: Sailing

Captain Morgan Hated Being Called a Pirate Because He Hated Democracy

Someone just suggested to me that the Spanish loved pirates while the British hated them.

This isn’t even remotely true and it reminded me how a Spanish city official (Don Juan Pérez de Guzmán, a decorated veteran of wars in Flanders) once called Captain Morgan a pirate, meaning to insult him as the Spanish monarchy hated pirates.

The story then goes Morgan indeed hated the exchange and was so enraged that he planned a devastatingly brutal siege of the Spanish city Guzmán defended, torturing residents and pillaging the area for weeks.

Here’s how one historian has referred to Morgan’s style of leadership:

Behind him were smoldering ruins, pestilence, poverty, misery and death.

A first-person’s account of Morgan’s battles was written by Alexandre Exquemelin, a doctor serving him, in a book called Buccaneers of America. Exqumelin wrote that Morgan lashed together Spanish nuns and priests to use as human shields while he attacked the Spanish military, and that he regularly imprisoned and raped women.

Painting Morgan commissioned of himself while “under arrest” in London after 1672. Source: National Trust of the United Kingdom
Morgan’s argument to the Spanish was that he was a proud privateer in service of the British monarchy during war (Governor of Jamaica in 1667 gave Morgan a letter of marque to attack Spanish ships).

He ran an autocratic and ruthless mercenary operation accused by his own men of “cheating” them of promised wages and benefits as he pillaged cities, which he wasn’t even authorized to do. But hey, that’s privateer life in the immoral service to monarchy (ultimately charges against him were dismissed and instead he received a formal appointment to government, where he proudly owned hundreds of slaves to operate Jamaican sugar plantations). How dare anyone accuse him of being fair to his own people or a democratic leader? He would surely have tortured and killed them if they did.

In that sense, pirates seem almost like entrepreneurs challenging the brutality of unjust political systems of monarchy. Pirates fought against those who had expressly denied human rights and trafficked in human exploitation. They weren’t going to fight in wars that benefited only a few elites, because Pirates often used a democratic system of leadership based on votes and qualifications.

Privateers functioned almost in the opposite way to pirates; as business operators appointed by authority they served awful political systems to exploit high-risk and unregulated markets. They operated as ruthless mercenaries milking a corrupt system for some personal gain.

It’s a significant difference between an owner-operator business in undefined territory versus exploitative vigilantism. Somehow pirates have become associated with the latter when historically they seem to have operated more as the former.

This perhaps is best explained in Chapter 8 of “The Invisible Hook: The Hidden Economics of Pirates” by Peter T. Leeson

Permanent Improvisation: Nazi Dictatorship Was Opposite to Law and Order

Important insights come from reading “The German Dictatorship” by Karl Dietrich Bracher, who was a professor of politics and history at the University of Bonn

The German dictatorship did not mean ‘law and order.’ The Third Reich lived in a state of permanent improvisation: the ‘movement’ once in power was robbed of its targets and instead extended its dynamic into the chaos of rival governmental authorities.

Nazi Germany was a state of permanent improvisation.

Today this method of unaccountable governance is seen in headlines such as “[White House occupant] and Woody Johnson act as if the rules don’t apply to them”

Bracher goes on to say it was democracy, through regulation and governance, where the foundations of prosperity could be found because it offered a meaningful level of stability (true order based on justice).

Perhaps the next time someone says they love the “fail faster” culture of Facebook, ask them if they also see it as a modern take on the state of permanent improvisation favored by Hitler.

Facebook’s staff now claim to be in opposition to their own failure culture “Hurting People at Scale“:

“We are failing,” [a seven-year Facebook engineer] said, criticizing Facebook’s leaders for catering to political concerns at the expense of real-world harm. “And what’s worse, we have enshrined that failure in our policies.”

The failures and real-world harm are intentional and orchestrated by Facebook officers who somehow manage to escape responsibility:

…growing sense among some Facebook employees that a small inner circle of senior executives — including Chief Executive Mark Zuckerberg, Chief Operating Officer Sheryl Sandberg, Nick Clegg, vice president of global affairs and communications, and Joel Kaplan, vice president of global public policy — are making decisions that run counter to the recommendations of subject matter experts and researchers below them, particularly around hate speech, violence and racial bias…

It begs the question again, can the Security Officer of Facebook be held liable for atrocity crimes and human rights failures he facilitated?

After reading Bracher’s wisdom on Nazi platform design, and seeing how it relates to the state of Facebook, now consider General Grant’s insights of 1865 at the end of the Civil War when Lee’s treasonous Army of Northern Virginia surrendered:

I felt like anything rather than rejoicing at the downfall of a foe who had fought so long and valiantly, and had suffered so much for a cause, though that cause was, I believe, one of the worst for which a people ever fought, and one for which there was the least excuse.

It should be no surprise then that it was Grant who created the Department of Justice.

We won’t rejoice at the downfall of Facebook, despite them being one of the worst companies for which a people ever worked, and for which there was the least excuse. Their unregulated state of permanent improvisation — a fast-fail culture used to avoid accountability for real-world harms for profit at scale — needs to end.

Facebook is a digital slavery plantation. “fail faster” turns out to be just “fail” without accountability, which turns out to just be privilege to do known wrongs to people and get rich.

Grant wasn’t opposed to change or failure, of course, he just put it all in terms of being on the right side of history, which he forever will be (PDF, UCL PhD Thesis) and unlike the Facebook executives who should be sent to jail:

My failures have been errors in judgment, not of intent.

The 18th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Martin Dempsey, frames Grant’s memoirs for us like this:

Our intentions matter. They reflect our motivations, our beliefs, our character. If we start with good intentions, and hold ourselves accountable to them, we start in the right place.

Facebook management continuously had bad intentions since it was first conceived as a platform for men to amass power and do wrongs (a failed attempt to invite crowds into physically shaming women who refused to go on a date with the founder).

…opened on October 28, 2003—and closed a few days later, after it was shut down by Harvard execs. In the aftermath, Zuckerberg faced serious charges of breach of security, violating copyrights, and violating individual privacy. Though he faced expulsion from Harvard for his actions, all charges against him were eventually dropped.

Bad intentions. No justice.

Fast forward to today, and officers of the company haven’t truly been held accountable. They definitely did not start in the right place and they continue to wrong people around the world. Their state of immoral and permanent improvisation has been a human rights disaster and needs to be stopped.

Slow is smooth, smooth is fast.

Photo of me applying smooth and fast theory to the 2007 North American Championships of the A-Class Catamaran

This Day in History: 1812 Luddites Attack a Zoom Mill

“Luddites confined their attacks to manufacturers who used machines in what they called ‘a fraudulent and deceitful manner’ to get around standard labor practices. ‘They just wanted machines that made high-quality goods and they wanted these machines to be run by workers who had gone through an apprenticeship and got paid decent wages. Those were their only concerns.’ The British authorities responded by deploying armed soldiers to crush the protests.
On this day in 1812 a group of a hundred or more (some say thousands) Luddites near Manchester attempted to enter Burton’s Mill in protest. Armed guards of the mill as well as British soldiers fired live rounds into the crowd, killing up to a dozen people.

So why were these Luddites protesting and why were they murdered for it?

There’s a common misnomer among those who say Luddites were an anti-technology group, which the Smithsonian fortunately has tried to dispel.

The label now has many meanings, but when the group protested 200 years ago, technology wasn’t really the enemy.

Let me put it like this. To say Luddites were anti-technology is like saying Robin Hood was anti-technology.

Does anyone say “that Robin Hood really hated the bow and arrow”? No. That makes no sense. His story was about the moral use of bow and arrow (disruptive technology of his day, as proven in the 1415 Battle of Agincourt).

Robin Hood was a folk hero who popularly protested the misuse of technology by elites.

Similarly to the legend of Robin Hood, a powerful Ludd character rose out of the Sherwood forest area of Nottingham to fight for morality as a crucial factor in use of technology; Luddites then demanded quality and expertise in tech to be valued above exploitation.

The Luddites therefore were experts at using technology who disliked owners using machinery in ways known to increase death and suffering.

Think of these heavily armed mill owners in 1800s, targeted by Luddites, as the Sheriff of Sherwood Forrest from 400 years earlier. Then ask who really was on the side of the Sheriff in Robin Hood’s time?

Nottingham Forrest Sheriff, known for being “completely unsympathetic to the poverty of the town’s people, using immoral ways to collect taxes”

Or in today’s terms, think of this like people protesting Zoom’s immoral practices. Those (including myself) calling for Zoom usage to be ended immediately until their ethics show signs of improvement… we are not rejecting technology by holding it to a higher bar!

Luddites today would be the ones calling for and end to Zoom’s obviously deceitful and harmful business practices, to make technology safer for everyone.

Those who have been taught that Luddites didn’t like technology have been misled; don’t forget the entire point of a group who righteously protested against technology used immorally (wielded selfishly by owners and with obvious harms).

Even more tragically, people often leave out the fact that Luddites were ruthlessly murdered by factory gunmen and hanged for daring to defend society under a concept of greater good.

In truth, they inflicted less violence than they encountered. In one of the bloodiest incidents, in April 1812, some 2,000 protesters mobbed a mill near Manchester. The owner ordered his men to fire into the crowd, killing at least 3 and wounding 18. Soldiers killed at least 5 more the next day.

Earlier that month, a crowd of about 150 protesters had exchanged gunfire with the defenders of a mill in Yorkshire, and two Luddites died. Soon, Luddites there retaliated by killing a mill owner, who in the thick of the protests had supposedly boasted that he would ride up to his britches in Luddite blood. Three Luddites were hanged for the murder; other courts, often under political pressure, sent many more to the gallows or to exile in Australia before the last such disturbance, in 1816.

At least 8 killed in just one protest. Some estimates are double. But in all cases the government was using overwhelming force.

To be fair, Luddites reportedly also did commit violent acts against people, even though it ran counter their overall goals of social good.

Some claims were made that Luddites intimidated local populations into sheltering and feeding them, similar to charges against Robin Hood. That seems like dubious government propaganda, however, as Luddites were a populist movement and “melting away” was again a sign of popular support rather than violent intimidation tactics.

Indeed, more often there were accounts of Luddites sneaking into factories at night and cleverly taking soldiers’ guns away to destroy only the machines as a form of protest. People were set free and unharmed.

An exception was in the case above where a mill owner “boasted” of murdering Luddites and was arming guards and calling in the military… escalation unfortunately was set on a path where Luddites stepped up their defense/retaliation.

Don’t forget 1812 was a very violent time overall for the British, with tensions rising around inequality (food shortages) and protracted European war (1803–1815), including rising tangles with America over its relations with France.

Prime Minister Spencer Perceval, who extremely opposed the Luddites, was assassinated May 11, 1812 by a merchant named John Bellingham.

Bellingham walked up and shot Perceval point-blank, then calmly sat down on a bench nearby to wait his arrest. Conspiracy theories soon circled, suggesting American merchants and British banks were conspiring to end trade blockades with France.

A month after the May assassination was when the War of 1812 began with America.

All that being said, if you want to ensure technology improves, and doesn’t just exploit unsuspecting consumers to benefit a privileged few, read more about the populist Luddite as well as Robin Hood stories from Nottingham.

These legends represent disadvantaged groups appealing for justice against a tyranny of elites.

Also, consider how “General Ludd” was another fictional character of the Sherwood Forest by design. Here’s a quick Ludd rhyme that was turned into a ticket to entry for meetings.

“This simple stamped ticket with its message showing support for General Ludd would have allowed entrance to one of the local meetings.”

It was his (and Robin Hood’s) inauthenticity, as a face of the very real populist cause that made them impossible to kill.

The legend of Ludd kept “his” cause of justice alive despite overwhelming oppositional military forces. Allegedly British authorities invoked “posse comitatus” (it’s a thing Sheriffs are known to do) and deployed more military soldiers domestically to stop Luddites than during war with Napoleon.

Nottingham took on the appearance of a wartime garrison… authorities estimated the number of rioters at 3,000, but at any one time, no more than 30 would gather…

In American history we have similar heroes, such as the inauthentic yet also real General Tubman. She fought plantation owners in the same sense that Ludd fought mill owners; targeting the immoral use of machinery.

Surely slave owners would have called Tubman an anti-technology radical at war with their manufacturing if they could have made such absurd accusations stick (instead of her being remembered rightly as an American patriot, veteran, abolitionist and human rights champion).

Sadly people incorrectly brand Luddites as anti-technology, when in fact they very much were in favor of proper and skilled use of technology. Hopefully someday soon this chapter in history will stand corrected.

Inarticulate Grief

Spoiler alert. Inarticulate Grief is a poem by Richard Aldington about WWI that is still relevant today.

Let the sea beat its thin torn hands
In anguish against the shore,
Let it moan
Between headland and cliff;
Let the sea shriek out its agony
Across waste sands and marshes,
And clutch great ships,
Tearing them plate from steel plate
In reckless anger;
Let it break the white bulwarks
Of harbour and city;
Let it sob and scream and laugh
In a sharp fury,
With white salt tears
Wet on its writhen face;
Ah! let the sea still be mad
And crash in madness among the shaking rocks —
For the sea is the cry of our sorrow

Now read Inarticulate Grief, by Sean Patrick Hughes, a beautiful prose about America’s endless Bush-Cheney Wars.

No deployment I had was hard enough to make me deal with the pain it caused. Someone always had it harder. No loss suffered; no trauma absorbed was bad enough to acknowledge. Someone always had it tougher. Acknowledging it, in some way, dishonored them.

Facebook Failed to Encrypt Data, Failed to Notice Breach, Didn’t Notify Victims for a Month

Facebook management has recklessly steered into obvious privacy icebergs causing hundreds of millions of users to suffer during its brief history, and yet the company never seems to hit bottom
A series of timeline delays in another Facebook breach story seem rather strange for 2019.

This breach started with a physical break-in November 17th and those affected didn’t hear about it for nearly a month, until December 13th.

The break-in happened on Nov. 17, and Facebook realized the hard drives were missing on Nov. 20, according to the internal email. On Nov. 29, a “forensic investigation” confirmed that those hard drives included employee payroll information. Facebook started alerting affected employees on Friday Dec. 13.

The company didn’t notice hard drives with unencrypted data missing for half a week, which itself is unusual. The robbery was on a Sunday, and they reported it only three days later on a Wednesday.

Then it was another long two weeks after the breach, on a Friday, when someone finally came forward to say that these missing drives stored unencrypted sensitive personal identity information.

This is like reading news from ten years ago, when large organizations still didn’t quite understand or practice the importance of encryption, removable media safety and quick response. Did it really happen in 2019?

It sounds like someone working at Facebook either had no idea unencrypted data on portable hard drives is a terrible idea, or they were selling the data.

The employee who was robbed is a member of Facebook’s payroll department, and wasn’t supposed to have taken the hard drives outside the office.

“Wasn’t supposed to have taken…” is some of the weakest security language I’ve heard from a breached company in a long time. What protection and detection controls were in place? None?

Years ago there was a story about a quiet investigation at Facebook that allegedly discovered staff were pulling hard-drives out of datacenters, flying them to far away airports and exchanging them for bags of money.

It was similar to the very recent story of journalists uncovering that Facebook staff were taking $3K/month in bribes to help external attackers bypass internal security.

Of course many other breaches have proven how internal staff who observe weak security leadership may attempt to monetize data they can access, whether users or staff.

The man accused of stealing customer data from home mortgage lender Countrywide Financial Corp. was probably able to download and save the data to an external drive because of an oversight by the company’s IT department.

The insider threat is real and happens far too often.

I also think we shouldn’t wave this Facebook story off as just involving 30,000 staff data instead of the more usual customer data.

First, staff often are customers too. Second, when you’re talking tens of thousands of people impacted, that’s a significant breach and designating them as staff versus user is shady. Breach of personal data is a breach.

And there’s plenty of evidence that stolen data when found on unencrypted drives, regardless of whose data it is, can be sold on an illegal market.

This new incident however reads less like that kind of sophisticated insider threat and more like the generic sloppy security that used to be in the news ten years ago.

Kaiser Permanente officials said the theft occurred in early December after an employee left the drive inside the car at her home in Sacramento. A week after the break-in, the unidentified employee notified hospital officials of the potential data breach.

Regardless of whether a insider threat, a targeted physical attack, or just disappointing sloppy management practices and thoughtless staff…Facebook’s December 13 notice of a November 17 breach seems incredibly slow for 2019 given GDPR, and the simple fact everyone should know that notifications are meant to be within three days.

I’m reminded of the Titanic reacting slowly and mostly ignoring four days of ice notifications.

1:45 P.M. “Amerika” passed two large icebergs in 41.27 N., 50.8 W.

9:40 P.M. From “Mesaba” to “Titanic” and all east-bound ships: Ice report in latitude 42º N. to 41º 25’ N., longitude 49º W to longitude 50º 30’ W. Saw much heavy pack ice and great number large icebergs. Also field ice. Weather good, clear.

11:00 P.M. Titanic begins to receive a sixth message about ice in the area, and radio operator Jack Phillips cuts it off, telling the operator from the other ship to “shut up.”

US Army Considers Grey Hats for PSYOP Warriors

Leaflets have been so basic, so very black beret and prone to failures, that something higher up on the hat color chart seems to be in store for the military:

How better to attract talent into a modernizing Psychological Operations (PSYOP) group than a grey hat?

Nothing is decided yet, I mean there’s still a chance someone could influence the decisions, but rumors have it that the next generation of psychological warfare troops could expect to be represented in a beret the color of white noise:

The idea is essentially still being floated at this point, but it could be a recruiting boon for the PSYOP career field, which is tasked with influencing the emotions and behaviors of people through products like leaflets, loudspeakers and, increasingly, social media.

“In a move to more closely link Army Special Operations Forces, the PSYOP Proponent at the U.S. Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School is exploring the idea of a distinctive uniform item, like a grey beret, to those Soldiers who graduate the Psychological Operations Qualification Course,” Lt. Col. Loren Bymer, a USASOC spokesman, said in an emailed statement to Army Times.

While still being a little fuzzy on the details, reporters also dropped some useful knowledge bombs in their story:

1) The new Army Special Operations Command strategy released just a month ago states everyone always will be trained in cyber warfare and weaponizing information

LOE 2 Readiness, OBJ 2.2 Preparation: Reality in readiness will be achieved using cyber and information warfare in all aspects of training.

2) Weaponizing information means returning to principles of influence operations in World War II (e.g. Mission 101, and Operation Torch), let alone World War I (e.g. Battle of Beersheba)… I mean adapting to the modern cloud platform (Cambridge Analytica) war. The Army Times article also states:

“We need to move beyond our 20th century approach to messaging and start looking at influence as an integral aspect of modern irregular warfare,” Andrew Knaggs, the Pentagon’s deputy assistant secretary of defense for special operations and combating terrorism, said at a defense industry symposium in February. Army Special Operations Command appears to take seriously the role that influencing plays in great power competition.

Speaking of cloudy information and influence, an Army site describes how the Air Force in 2008 setup a data analysis function and referred to them as Grey Berets, or Special Operations Weather Team (SOWT):

As some of the most highly trained military personnel, the “grey beret” are a force to be reckoned with. Until SOWT gives the “all-clear” the mission doesn’t move forward.

The Air Force even offers hi-res photos of a grey beret as proof they are real.

Kessler AFB: “Team members collect atmospheric data, assist mission planning, generate accurate and mission-tailored target and route forecasts in support of global special operations, conduct special weather reconnaissance and train foreign national forces.” Click for original.

Meanwhile over at the Navy and Marines there’s much discussion about vulnerability to broad-based information attacks across their entire supply chain.

This might be a good time to remember the day of October 12, 1961 (only nine months after taking office as the President), when JFK visited Fort Bragg’s Special Warfare Center.

While Brigadier General (BG) William P. Yarborough, commander of the U.S. Army Special Warfare Center, waited at the pond, the presidential caravan drove down roads flanked on both sides by saluting SF soldiers, standing proudly in fatigues and wearing green berets.

“Late Thursday morning, 12 October 1961, BG Yarborough welcomed the 35th President, Secretary McNamara, GEN Decker, and the distinguished guests at the reviewing stand.”

General Yarborough very strategically wore the green beret as he greeted JFK and they spoke of Special Forces wanting them a long time (arguably since 1953 when ex-OSS Major Brucker started the idea).

A few days after the visit in October 1961 JFK famously wrote poetically to the General:

The challenge of this old but new form of operations is a real one…I am sure the Green Beret will be a mark of distinction in the trying times ahead.

Just one month later, 58 years ago (November 1961) the green beret became official headgear of the Special Forces, which earlier that year started being deployed into Vietnam. Finally on April 11, 1962 JFK issued a White House Memorandum to the US Army:

The Green Beret is again becoming a symbol of excellence, a badge of courage, a mark of distinction in the fight for freedom.

What will the grey hat symbolize and what will become its history?


Update May 2020: Perspective from USSOCOM on SOF and US Strategy.

“During his most recent trip to Afghanistan, Clarke said, he found that commanders now spend 60 percent of their time working in the information space. Commanders think about how to use the information space to influence the Taliban’s thought processes and how to influence the Afghan.”

Update July 2020: ArmyTimes wrote up “How the Green Berets got their name

Founded in 1952 as part of the U.S. Army Psychological Warfare Division, the 10th Special Forces Group was the first of its kind, according to Army archives. It was named the tenth group to make the Soviets think there were at least nine others just like it, Anne Jacobsen wrote in her book “Surprise, Kill, Vanish.” […] Wanting to distinguish themselves from conventional Army forces, Special Forces soldiers selected the wear of the beret because of OSS influence, since a number of its teams adopted headgear worn by soldiers in France. And the color green came from the influence of British Commandos during World War II.

Russian “Seabed Warfare” Ship Sails Near U.S. Cables

Recently I wrote about developments in airborne information warfare machines.

Also in the news lately is an infamous Russian “seabed warfare” ship that suddenly appeared in Caribbean waters.

Original artwork from Covert Shores, by H I Sutton. Click on image for more ship details.

She can deploy deep-diving submarines and has two different remote-operated vehicle (ROV) systems. And they can reach almost any undersea cable on the planet, even in deep water where conventional wisdom says that a cable should be safe.

In the same news story, the author speculates that ship is engaged right now in undersea cable attacks.

…search patterns are different from when she is near Internet cables. So we can infer that she us doing something different, and using different systems.

So has she been searching for something on this trip? The journey from her base in the Arctic to the Caribbean is approximately 5,800 miles. With her cruising speed of 14.5 knots it should have taken her about two weeks. Instead it has taken her over a month. So it does appear likely.

The MarineTraffic map shows the ship near the coast of Trinidad.

MarineTraffic map of Yantar

Maps of the Caribbean waters illustrate the relevance of any ship’s position to Internet cables and seabed warfare.

TeleGeography Submarine Cable Map 2019

A Russian ship on the northwest coast of Trinidad means it’s either inspecting or even tapping into the new DeepBlue cable, listed as going online 2020. Trinidad is in the lower right corner of the above map. Here’s a zoomed in look at the area to compare with the ship position map above:

And the DeepBlue cable specs give a pretty good idea of why a Russian seabed warfare ship would be hovering about in those specific waters…

Spanning approximately 12,000 km and initially landing in 14 markets, the Deep Blue Cable will meet an urgent demand for advanced telecom services across the Caribbean. This resilient state-of-the-art cable has up to 8 fibre pairs with an initial capacity of 6Tbps and ultimate capacity of approximately 20Tbps per fibre pair. It is designed to be fully looped maximizing system resiliency. With more than 40 planned landings, Deep Blue Cable will bring 28 island nations closer to each other and better connected to the world.

In only somewhat related news, the U.S. has been funding a scientific mission with the latest undersea discovery robots to find missing WWII submarines.

The USS Grayback was discovered more than 1,400 feet under water about 50 miles south of Okinawa, Japan, in June by Tim Taylor and his “Lost 52 Project” team, which announced the finding Sunday.

Announcing the discovery of the USS Grayback on June 5th, 2019 by Tim Taylor and his “Lost 52 Project” team.

Their announcements are public and thus show how clearly technology today can map the seabed.

It is a far cry from the Cold War methods, as illustrated in this chart of cable faults since 1959 by cause (in a report from UK think tank Policy Exchange):


The 21% fishing breaks really should have been split out more, given how the same Policy Exchange report reveals Russia “accidentally” cut cables via unmarked fishing trawlers that would hover about.

To put it another way, while nobody could positively catch these fishing boats cutting transatlantic cables, the book “Incidents at Sea” explains how breaks jumped 4X whenever the Russians would drag tackle anywhere near a cable.

In just four days of February 1959, a series of twelve breaks in five American cables happened off the coast of Newfoundland, with only the Russian Novorossiysk trawler nearby.

As the caption of the above historic press photo explains, the US Navy (USS Roy O Hale) intercepted the trawler boarded her and searched for evidence of intent to break cables.

While broken cable was found on deck, the crew claimed they found cutting it the best option to free their nets from being tangled.

Nothing conclusive was found either way, so the case remained open as Russia complained about unfair detention of its citizens and the US complained about an 1884 Convention for the Protection of Submarine Telegraph Cables.


Update February 11, 2020: “New Pentagon Map Shows Huge Scale Of Worrisome Russian and Chinese Naval Operations

Though the map does not say what time period it covers and or what types of naval vessels were necessarily present in specific locations and when, it does confirm that there has been notable Russian naval activity off the coast of the southeastern United States, as well as in the North Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean, in recent years.

This new map confirms much of what has been talked about for years, although it also reveals a high amount of Chinese naval activity off the coast of Mozambique.

US DoD map showing Russian and Chinese naval activity, as well as the location of major undersea cables.

I don’t think I’ve ever seen mention of China’s heavy activity in southern African waters. The opposite, actually, as India and Mozambique recently made very public that they signed an agreement to apply pressure against Chinese ship movements in that region.

Ahead of undertaking a three-day visit to the southern African country of Mozambique, Indian Defence Minister Rajnath Singh on Friday said that the two countries will sign agreements in the fields of “exclusive economic zone surveillance, sharing of white shipping information and hydrography”.

A Chinese government promotional video for their 25th Fleet visiting Madagascar, however, offers the explanation that since “December 2008, authorized by the United Nations, the Chinese navy has been sending task forces to the Gulf of Aden and Somali waters for escort missions” before touring the coastline.

Apparently 2012 was the last time a Chinese fleet (the 10th) was in Mozambique, so that may be a clue to the age of the newly released DoD map.

Don’t Be an AppleCard: Exposed for Using Sexist Algorithm

Wrecked ship Captain de Kam said “It’s just like losibng a beautiful woman”.
Photograph: Michael Prior

The creator of Ruby on Rails tweeted angrily at Apple November 7th that they were discriminating unfairly against his wife, and he wasn’t able to get a response:

By the next day, he had a response and he was even more unhappy. “THE ALGORITHM”, described similarly to Kafka’s 1915 novel “The Trial“, became the focus of his complaint:

She spoke to two Apple reps. Both very nice, courteous people representing an utterly broken and reprehensible system. The first person was like “I don’t know why, but I swear we’re not discriminating, IT’S JUST THE ALGORITHM”. I shit you not. “IT’S JUST THE ALGORITHM!”. […] So nobody understands THE ALGORITHM. Nobody has the power to examine or check THE ALGORITHM. Yet everyone we’ve talked to from both Apple and GS are SO SURE that THE ALGORITHM isn’t biased and discriminating in any way. That’s some grade-A management of cognitive dissonance.

And the following day he appeals to regulators for a transparency regulation:

It should be the law that credit assessments produce an accessible dossier detailing the inputs into the algorithm, provide a fair chance to correct faulty inputs, and explain plainly why difference apply. We need transparency and fairness. What do you think @ewarren?

Transparency is a reasonable request. Another reasonable request in the thread was evidence of diversity within the team that developed the AppleCard product. These solutions are neither hard nor hidden.

What algorithms are doing, time and again, is accelerating and spreading historic wrongs. The question fast is becoming whether centuries of social debt in forms of discrimination against women and minorities is what technology companies are prepared for when “THE ALGORITHM” exposes the political science of inequality and links it to them.

Woz, founder of Apple, correctly states that only the government can correct these imbalances. Companies are too powerful for any individual to keep the market functioning to any degree of fairness.

Take the German government’s “Datenethikkommission” report on regulating AI, for example, as it was just released.

And the women named in the original tweet also correctly states that her privileged status, achieving a correction for her own account, is no guarantee of a social system of fairness for anyone else.

I care about justice for all. It’s why, when the AppleCard manager told me she was aware of David’s tweets and that my credit limit would be raised to meet his, without any real explanation, I felt the weight and guilt of my ridiculous privilege. So many women (and men) have responded to David’s twitter thread with their own stories of credit injustices. This is not merely a story about sexism and credit algorithm blackboxes, but about how rich people nearly always get their way. Justice for another rich white woman is not justice at all.

Again these are not revolutionary concepts. We’re seeing the impact from a disconnect between history, social science of resource management, and the application of technology. Fixing technology means applying social science theory in the context of history. Transparency and diversity work only when applied in that manner.

In my recent presentation to auditors at the annual ISACA-SF conference, I conclude with a list and several examples of how AI auditing will perform most effectively.

One of the problems we’re going to run into with auditing Apple products for transparency will be (from denying our right-to-repair hardware to forcing “store” bought software) they have been long waging a war against any transparency in technology.

Apple’s subtle, anti-competitive practices don’t look terrible in isolation, but together they form a clear strategy.

The closed-minded Apple model of business is also dangerous as it directly inspires others to repeat the mistakes.

Honeywell, for example, now speaks of “taking over your building’s brains” by emulating how Apple shuts down freedom:

A good analogy I give to our customers is, what we used to do [with industrial technology] was like a Nokia phone. It was a phone. Supposed to talk. Or you can do text. That’s all our systems are. They’re supposed to do energy management. They do it. They’re supposed to protect against fire. They do it. Right? Now our systems are more like Apple. It’s a platform. You can load any app. It works. But you can also talk, and you can also text. But you can also listen to the music. Possibilities emerge based upon what you want.

That closing concept of possibilities can be a very dangerous prospect if “what you want” comes from a privileged position of power with no accountability. In other words do you want to live in a building run by a criminal brain?

When an African American showed up to rent an apartment owned by a young real-estate scion named Donald Trump and his family, the building superintendent did what he claimed he’d been told to do. He allegedly attached a separate sheet of paper to the application, marked with the letter “C.” “C” for “Colored.” According to the Department of Justice, that was the crude code that ensured the rental would be denied.

Somehow THE ALGORITHM in that case ended up in the White House. And let us not forget that building was given such a peculiar name by Americans trying to appease white supremacists and stop blacks from entering even as guests of the President.

…Mississippi senator suggesting that after the dinner [allowing a black man to attend] the Executive Mansion was “so saturated with the odour of the nigger that the rats have taken refuge in the stable”. […] Roosevelt’s staff went into damage control, first denying the dinner had taken place and later pretending it was actually a quick bite over lunch, at which no women were in attendance.

A recent commentary about fixing closed minds, closed markets, and bias within in the technology industry perhaps explained it best:

The burden to fix this is upon white people in the tech industry. It is incumbent on the white women in the “women in tech” movement to course correct, because people who occupy less than 1% of executive positions cannot be expected to change the direction of the ship. The white women involved need to recognize when their narrative is the dominant voice and dismantle it. It is incumbent on white women to recognize when they have a seat at the table (even if they are the only woman at the table) and use it to make change. And we need to stop praising one another—and of course, white men—for taking small steps towards a journey of “wokeness” and instead push one another to do more.

Those sailing the ship need to course correct it. We shouldn’t expect people outside the cockpit to drive necessary changes. The exception is when talking about the governance group that licenses ship captains and thus holds them accountable for acting like an AppleCard.

Africa Foreshadowed U.S. Abandonment of Allies in Syria: Opening Doors for Russian and Chinese Military Expansions

During Southern Accord 2012 U.S. Army Africa, and other U.S. military forces foster security cooperation while conducting combined, joint humanitarian assistance, peacekeeping operations and aeromedical evacuation exercises. (U.S. Army Africa photo by Sgt. Adam Fischman)

Big shift from previous US policy on Africa.

The latest analysis of the Syria crisis increasingly reveals it is a Russian plan that the White House has swallowed hook, line and sinker. Both Russia and China stand poised to expand into areas formerly allied with America, to expand their own operations that will erode American relations and influence.

Unilateral withdrawal clearly harms U.S. interests both short (UN Security Council now comparing it to Bosnia, with regional destabilization) and long (high bar to gain foothold or respect for re-entry) terms, yet America somehow allows Executive-branch folly to proceed.

Perhaps you recall just a few months ago a similar withdrawal story was brewing in Africa? That probably should have been reported as a much starker warning of what was to come.

Gen Waldhauser said the troops will be deployed to missions where the US sees as high-priority.

“We all realise, you know, Africa, with regards to the prioritisation of our national interests … there’s no doubt about the fact that that it’s, you know, it’s not number one on the list,” Gen Waldhauser was quoted as saying.

The Trump administration views preparation for potential conflicts with China or Russia to be of higher priority than combating terrorism in Africa.

Now with the White House flying a white flag in abandoning its Kurdish allies in Syria, inviting Russia to roll right in afterwards, there might be a clearer explanation for abandonment of African forces.

The Kremlin’s goal is to emulate China’s success in fostering economic, diplomatic, and military links with Africa. To become an important partner, Moscow is organizing the first-ever Russia-Africa summit on 23-24 October.

The American pull-out from Africa serves the opposite of preparation elsewhere for potential conflicts with China or Russia.

Consider that turning tail and intentionally opening doors to Russian military sales expansion has been manifested by a brand new announcement that Russia is abruptly now pushing into new African allegiances:

While Moscow is focused primarily on other regions, it regards Africa as an attractive venue to evade international sanctions imposed by Western nations and deepen ties with old and new partners while scoring points at the expense of the United States.

Part of Russia’s engagement in Africa is military in nature. The Russian military and Russian private military contractors linked to the Kremlin have expanded their global military footprint in Africa, seeking basing rights in a half dozen countries and inking military cooperation agreements with 27 African governments

America claiming to be redirecting its military towards confrontation with Russia is double-talk. It’s pulling its hands off the wheel, literally opening the door and handing keys to arms dealers to drive. This will mean a spread of anti-humanitarian influences and locking the U.S. out of “forward” stations for military and civilian operations, which will greatly increase risk of harm to the United States (along with any democratic nations and states).

What is especially baffling is how China and Russia are doing basically the same expansionist plan, threatening American influence and ability to protect values, yet get such different treatment by the White House.

Replace the word China with Russia in this next story and you should see the problem with the U.S. unilateral withdrawal from Syria as well as Africa:

“There are two concerns about these investments,” said Ohio Rep. Bob Gibbs, the top Republican on the Subcommittee for Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation. “First, the dual commercial and military uses of these assets; second, that the debt incurred by these countries will tie them to China in ways that will facilitate China’s international pursuits and potentially inhibit U.S. overseas operations.”

We’ve seen this already as China uses its offer of loans to later squeeze control of ports

Kenyan government risks losing the lucrative Mombasa port to China should the country fail to repay huge loans advanced by Chinese lenders. In November, African Stand reported on how Kenya is at high risk of Losing strategic assets over huge Chinese debt and just after a few month the Chinese are about to take action.

Bottom line is that pulling back to confront Russia and China is counterproductive. Advance deployments and influence is what was designed to prevent a lopsided confrontation, by forming global alliances that maintain what Eisenhower wisely referred to as the American need for a confederation of mutual trust and respect.

Losing alliances also means American warfare technology (which depends increasingly on intelligence) becomes less reliable in the very near future. Perhaps I’m stating the obvious but things like “Simple map displays require 96 hours to synchronize a brigade or division targeting cycle…” will get performance gains faster/better through augmenting human alliance networks in the field rather than pulling out and relying on AI alone.


Update October 24: LSE’s Stephen Paduano and alum John McDermott write in The Economist that the rise of Russian activity in Africa has been accompanied by senseless violence.

When three Russian journalists tried to investigate their country’s shady operations in the Central African Republic they turned up dead in July 2018

Update December 31: A Compassion International Senior Security Specialist for Africa comments on a Washington Post article

How do you expect to counter China if you’re leaving where they are going? From the article, in response to China hosting leaders from 54 African countries yearly, “At the launch of Prosper Africa in Mozambique this year, the United States failed to send even a Cabinet secretary.”

When Can You Trust Cloud Providers?

The Raft of the Medusa by Géricault depicts service provider incompetence of 1816: “Crazed, parched and starved, they slaughtered mutineers, ate their dead companions and killed the weakest”

Our first book detailed the infrastructure risks in cloud environments. It gave basic instructions for how to make it safe to build a cloud.

However, I realized right away that a second book would be necessary as I saw operations going awry. People offering data “services” in cloud environments were doing so unethically.

That’s why since 2013 I’ve been working on tangible, actionable solutions to problems in cloud environments like the impostor CISO, the immoral SRE, and the greedy CEO.

It has been a much harder book to write because The Realities of Securing Big Data crosses many functional lines in an organization from legal to engineering, sales to operations. A long-time coming now, it hopefully will clarify how and why things like this keep happening, as well as what exactly we can do about it:

We recently found that some email addresses and phone numbers provided for account security may have been used unintentionally for advertising purposes. This is no longer happening and we wanted to give you more clarity around the situation: https://help.twitter.com/en/information-and-ads

…and that led to everyone asking an obvious question.

You may remember a very similar incident last year and wonder why nobody at Twitter thought to test their systems to make sure they didn’t have the same security flaws as a safety laggard like Facebook.

Facebook is not content to use the contact information you willingly put into your Facebook profile for advertising. It is also using contact information you handed over for security purposes and contact information you didn’t hand over at all.

Facebook and Twitter, after flashy high-profile CISO hires and lots of PR about privacy, both have sunken to terrible reputations. They rank towards the same levels as Wells Fargo in terms of customer confidence.

Facebook has experienced a tumultuous time due to privacy concerns and issues regarding election interference, ranked 94th. Wells Fargo ranked 96th. The Trump Organization ranked 98th, considered a “very poor” reputation.

The Drum says even the advertising industry is calling out Twitter for immorality and incompetence:

Neville Doyle, chief strategy officer at Town Square, suggested it was “enormously improbable” that Twitter ‘inadvertently’ improved its ad product with the sensitive data, and blasted the tech giant for being either “either immoral or incompetent”. Either way, he said, it was playing “fast and loose with users’ privacy”. Respected ad-tech and cybersecurity expert Dr Augustine Fou, who was previously chief digital officer at media agency Omnicom’s healthcare division, also branded Twitter’s announcement as “total chickenshit”. Last July, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) fined Facebook $5bn for improperly handling user data, the largest fine ever imposed on company for violating consumers’ privacy.

The technology fixes ahead are more straightforward than you might imagine, as well as the management fixes.

In brief, you can trust a cloud provider when you can verify in detail a specific set of data boundaries and controls are in place, with transparency around staffing authorizations and experience related to delivering services. Over the years I’ve led many engineering teams to build exactly this, so I’m speaking from experience of what’s possible. I’ve stood in customer executive meetings to detail how controls work and why the system was designed to mitigate cloud insider threats, including executives at the highest levels.

You should be especially concerned if management lacks an open and public resume of prior steps taken over years to serve the privacy needs of others, let alone management that lacks the ability to deconstruct how their control architecture was built from the start to serve your best interests.

What has been hard, especially through the years of Amazon’s “predator bully” subscription model being worshiped by sales teams, is keeping safety oriented around helping others. Tech cultures in America tend to cultivate “leaders” that think of innovation as separation; having no way to relate to the people they are serving.

The tone now seems to be changing as disclosures are increasing and we’re seeing exposure of the wrong things done by people who wanted to serve others while being unable to relate to them. Hoarding other people’s assets for self-gain in a thinly-veiled spin to be their “service provider” should never have been the meaning of cloud.