Painting of William Clarke Quantrill's 1863 "offensive defense" raid on Lawrence, Kansas that targeted civilians. Some say it was in retaliation to anti-slavery/abolitionist Jayhawkers
General Thomas Ewing, commander of the District of the Border, issued General Order No. 11 after Quantrill's raid, which sent soldiers into four counties of western Missouri to impose order on the population and destroy the "bushwhacker" network (support for militant rebels, either for or against slavery).
Quantrill was known for surprise attacks, fraud, disregard for authority and targeting civilians. He led men like Jesse James on ruthless campaigns in Texas and "Bleeding" Kansas until Confederate forces had no choice but to try and detain him. He escaped arrest through corruption and sympathy. Eventually he was shot by Union special forces in 1865 while threatening to kill the President and died in hospital. I'll post more details later this year.